Objects of this universe are made of five elements basically. These five basic elements are (1) Earth of Soil (2) Water (3) Fire (4) Air (5) Space (Aakash). These are called” panch Mahabhoot”.
Earth here means composition of the surface of the earth, the soil and other minerals present in the soil. The upper part of the surface is called soil, Stone, sand, iron, lime etc. all these are parts of soil. All these physical elements are available in limited quantity and on a particular place. This depends on the composition of surface, it from and size, trees and vegetation grown upon it etc. that whether it will be appropriate to inhabit at such a place or not. Moreover if there is a residence there, what type of construction should be there. Availability of essential building materials and their transportation also depend upon the formation of soil. soil can be categorized on the basis of its shape, touch, taste and sound. We must take care that it suits our physique while selecting land for building and collecting building material. There are many things described in Vastu Shastra about the size and type of land and method of” Bhoomi Pooja” are explained in it.
It is most essential for all creatures and is a basic element in construction Water forms 3/4 part of body’s weight. All of us know about different forms and resources of water. The quantity of water available at present is limited and is less than the requirement. Not only for creatures and vegetation but also for house construction, water is needed in sufficient quantity. Therefore, it should be ensured before house construction, whether water will remain available or not. Usually, in most of the villages a pond is available along with ground water source, which is maintained by villagers themselves, people inhabit colonies on the banks of rivers, lakes and sea, where underground water is available in large quantity and wells can be dug up in a suitable place for colonies. Shape and size of building and life-style are designed at a place according to the availability of water and relation with land. Taking care of water also means the house is stable even during heavy rains, the building is not harmed and flood does not cause havoc. Taste forms, feeling and sound are characteristics of water.
Fire circulates energy in the form of light and heat. The sun is the main source of light and heat for us. The movement of the earth in relation to the sun causes day and night and changes in seasons. Rain and wind are also possible due to the heat of the sun. The sun provides living beings with courage, zeal and power. Most of the colonies in the world are found in temperate zones where Sun’s energy is available in sufficient quantity. Care should be taken that the building has constant such a way that it is fit for living comfortable in both seasons - in summer as well as in winter and it is not destroyed by lightning. Thus house construction plan is greatly affected by heat and light (i.e. Fire). Shape, feeling and sound are characteristics of fire.
Atmosphere (i.e. mixture of gases like oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, Ozone etc..) exists around the earth up to 400 km height approximately. Composition of atmosphere and presence of vapours in it differ from place to place according to local situations. We cannot see air but we can feel and hear it. Air is an essential element for all living beings. It is essential to have correct supply, correct temperature and pressure, correct percentage of humidity in the air for both kinds of comforts- physical and mental for man. Therefore, the shape, size construction and direction of buildings should be such as they have sufficient supply of air healthy and comfortable living. No part of the building should remain without air. Foul air should not gather in the building and fresh air should come continuously. From which direction air should enter or not is also important. In our country the air blowing from the South is considered baneful and inauspicious.
Space is the most widely spread over of the five basic elements. The unending region of the universe in which all the heavenly bodies exist is called space (Aakaash). There is no place in the universe where this space does not exist. Gravitational pull of various heavenly bodies, magnetic power, different kind of radiation and waves like ultra - violet rays, infra-red rays, light rays, cosmic rays, etc. are always present in space. Their effects can be felt in many forms, and many activities and designs (plans) in our life are conducted by their effects. Sound is produced in space only. If there is no space, sound waves are not possible. The form in which space permits the building will decide accordingly the form of our taking, singing and playing, weeping and other activities. The echo of our sound will go according to space.
Therefore, the houses should be built in such a way and plan that these invisible forces of nature and the energies generated by them can be fully utilized and their harmful effects can be avoided. Human body is also made of five basic elements and similarly all the other things of the world are made of them. Therefore, the five basic elements existing inside and outside man have a constant though invisible relation which affects activities of life. In our residence or office building, etc., are constructed in a well-planned manner keeping in view the effects of “Panchmahabhoot”, i.e. the five basic elements - earth, water, air, space and fire life can be full of more happiness and prosperity. The ancient Rishis and sages had knowledge of the relation between five basic elements and their energies and their utility in needed quantity Therefore, vastu shastra explains such principles of house building according to which appropriate use of the effects of these five basic elements can be achieved by selecting land accordingly, as soil inhabits our body, similarly our body inhabits a building. The effects of these five basic elements have been fully taken care of in the principles laid down in vastu shastra, by which a residence can be made for a comfortable life and not merely for show.
Vastu Shastra is based on five energies i.g. EARTH, WATER, FIRE, AIR & SPACE. These five energies are INVISIBLE but very strong, so much that even God’s made it statutory that their temples should be made on the basis of this science.
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